Manure is an organic substance. Manure is made by decomposing organic matter like animal waste and plant residue.
To prepare manure, farmers dump animal wastes like cow dung and plant wastes like hay and leaves in pits at open places. These wastes are decomposed by micro-organisms and get converted into manure.
ADVANTAGES OF MANURE
1. Manure makes the soil porous and increases the water holding capacity of soil
2. It improves the texture of the soil.
3. Manure increases the number of useful microbes in the soil. Hence it is considered better than fertilizers.
Fertilizers are inorganic salts made in factories.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FERTILIZERS
1. Fertilizers are rich in a specific plant nutrient such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium
2. Fertilizers are more soluble in water and can be quickly absorbed by plants.
1.Excessive use of chemical fertilisers reduces soil fertility.
2. Fertilisers reduce porous nature of soil which leads to water logging.
3.When fertilisers are washed away by rain water, it leads to water pollution.
Advantages of Manure over fertilizers
When compared, organic manure is more desirable and effective than fertilisers. Because:
1. Manure increases the soil capacity allowing to hold it water in large quantity.
2. The interchange of gases becomes easy since manure has made the soil penetrable.
3. The number of friendly microorganisms are increased.
4. The smoothness of the soil has also been increased due to addition of manure.
IRRIGATION:- is the method in which a controlled amount of water is supplied to plants at regular intervals for agriculture. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming
irrigation often include pulley systems that are used to deliver water to soil, vegetation, flowers, and/or other forms of plant life. For many farmers who can’t afford expensive spray systems that are pre-timed for near-perfect results, lower-priced, traditional methods of irrigation, such as ra-hats, chain pumps, or lever systems (also known as Dhe Kli) can be very cost-effective. Here is a look at the most common methods of low-tech irrigation:
• Pulleys are used to carry buckets of water where they are needed. Much like clotheslines that use pulleys to move clothes nearer or further away, pulley systems for irrigation are designed to cut down on the amount of manual labour needed to take care of gardens or farmland. Since pulleys automate part of the process, they are a cheap and useful way to carry water to plants and soil. Pulleys must be installed aboveground – they may be tied to stakes that are buried in the earth – strong rope will hold the pulley-based irrigation system together.
• These ancient Chinese irrigation systems use round metal discs and a long loop of metal chain to water soil and plants. Each metal disc runs through a pool of liquid, and each disc collects some water during this process. When the chain is pulled, the metal disc rises up to the top, and the water held inside pours out, hydrating the earth and flora. This low-cost method of traditional irrigation has been practised for centuries.
• Lever systems allow the user to control the speed of irrigation by choosing slow, medium or fast water flow; however, the lever system method is not as ancient, or inexpensive, as other methods mentioned here.
Traditional irrigation systems allow farmers or hobbyists to keep their plants and soil moist, which creates the right atmosphere for the growth of healthy plants.
MODERN METHODS of irrigation help save water. They are given below:
i) SPRINKLER SYSTEM:
This system is more useful on uneven land, having fewer water supplies. In this method,water is supplied using pipes to one or more central locations within the field. When water is allowed to flow under high pressure with the help of a pump, it gets sprinkled on the crops.
ii) DRIP SYSTEM :
In this system , water delivered at or near the roots of plants , drop by drop . This is the most efficient method of irrigation as there is no wastage of water at all. This method is important in areas where water availability is poor.
The Weed Problem
Weeds grow in gardens, whether we like it or not. They compete with plants and lawn grass for water and nutrients and they grow everywhere, making the garden less attractive. To solve this problem, they must be removed.
However, for various reasons, weeds often grow back. Here are some of the most common reasons:
• They were not removed completely and part of their roots stayed in the soil. The left-over roots allow them to grow again.
• The garden is surrounded by woods or non-landscaped areas that contain a lot of weeds, and their seeds get carried by wind or birds to residential yards.
• If they were not completely removed (all the weeds and all their roots), this makes it easier for them to return.
• They might reappear because the lawn is not dense enough and the empty spots invite weeds to settle down and spread.
Digging out plants: Plants with bulbs, tubers and corms must be completely removed from the soil by digging out. Often these plants will reproduce from broken off pieces.
• You will need to prepare the area by removing as much ground vegetation as possible (such as mulch or ground debris)
• Using a small trowel, dig a narrow channel next to the stem until you reach the main bulb, then dig the main bulb up.
• Check the soil for any adjoining or loose bulbets. These must also be removed with a substantial amount of soil and bagged.
• Follow up on a regular basis.
This technique is useful for weeds such as asparagus fern, which have their growing points below the surface of the soil. (corms, rhizomes or tufted fibrous root systems).
• Grasp the leaves or stems of the plant and hold them firmly so that the base of the plant is visible. Any weeds with sharp leaves or stems should be cut back first.
• Insert a knife close to the base of the plant at an angle, with the tip well under the root system.
• Cut through the roots close to the base of the plant. Make sure that the hard crown or base of the plant where the roots begin is completely removed. It may require several cuts.
• Hang the crowned plant matter up off the ground.
• Follow up on a regular basis.
This requires holding the plant stem as close as possible to the base of the plant. Gently tug the plant. This will loosen the soil and allow the plant to come free. The plant may be hung up off the ground or piled in a heap.
Winding up: This process is suitable for plants with surface or climbing runners such as Morning glory.
• You need to locate a runner, gently pull it along the ground towards you. Roll the runners up for easy removal. Continue doing this until all the runners have been rolled up. Small fibrous roots growing from the runners can be cut with a knife.
• You should locate the main root system whilst removing the runners. When you do, remove it manually.
• Do not leave any bits of stem or large roots, as these may reshoot.
• Bag or compost the runners/roots.
• Follow up on a regular basis.
is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields. Reaping is the cutting of grain or pulse for harvest, typically using a scythe, sickle, or reaper. On smaller farms with minimal mechanization, harvesting is the most labor-intensive activity of the growing season. On large mechanized farms, harvesting utilizes the most expensive and sophisticated farm machinery, such as the combine harvester. The term “harvesting” in general usage may include immediate postharvest handling, including cleaning, sorting, packing, and cooling.
• The completion of harvesting marks the end of the growing season, or the growing cycle for a particular crop, and the social importance of this event makes it the focus of seasonal celebrations such as harvest festivals, found in many religions
allows food to be eaten for some time (typically weeks to months) after harvest rather than solely immediately. It is both a traditional domestic skill and, in the form of food logistics, an important industrial and commercial activity. Food preservation, storage, and transport, including timely delivery to consumers, are important to food security, especially for the majority of people throughout the world who rely on others to produce their food. Food is stored by almost every human society and by many animals. Storing of food has several main purposes:
• Storage of harvested and processed plant and animal food products for distribution to consumers
• Enabling a better balanced diet throughout the year
• Reducing kitchen waste by preserving unused or uneaten food for later use
• Preserving pantry food, such as spices or dry ingredients like rice and flour, for eventual use in cooking
• Preparedness for catastrophes, emergencies and periods of food scarcity or famine
• Religious reasons (Example: LDS Church leaders instruct church members to store food)
• Protection from animals or theft
Animal source foods
Animal source foods : include many food item that comes from an animal source such as meat, milk, eggs, cheese and yogurt. Many individuals do not consume or consume little by either personal choice or necessity as may not be accessible or available to these people.